Cdc Research Paper


DECEMBER 4, 2007

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is the nation??™s premier public health agency??”working to ensure healthy people live in a healthy world. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the primary Federal agency for conducting and supporting public health activities in the United States. CDC??™s focus is not only on scientific excellence but also on the essential spirit that is CDC ??“ to protect the health of all people. CDC keeps humanity at the forefront of its mission to ensure health protection through promotion, prevention, and preparedness.
In the six decades since its founding, CDC has grown dramatically: in staff, budget and mission. The world authority on communicable disease, CDC has broadened its focus to include chronic diseases, disabilities, injury control, workplace hazards, environmental health threats, and terrorism preparedness. Whereas malaria was once considered a threat to the country??™s security, new threats have now emerged. CDC tackles emerging diseases and other health risks, including birth defects, West Nile virus, obesity, avian and pandemic flu, E. coli, auto wrecks, and bioterrorism, to name a few.
The CDC works to protect public health and the safety of people, by providing information to enhance health decisions, and promotes health through partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. The CDC focuses national attention on developing and applying disease prevention and control (especially infectious diseases), environmental health, occupational safety and health, health promotion, prevention and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States.
CDC is committed to achieving true improvements in people??™s health. To do so, the agency is defining specific health impact goals to prioritize and focus its work and investments and measure progress. The goals of the agency are as follows: Healthy People in Every Stage of Life by reducing health risks, at all stages of life, through the most efficient and effective means possible. Healthy People in Healthy Places by ensuring the places we live, work, and play have safe, healthy environments.
?  The CDC awards nearly 85 percent of its budget through grants and contracts to help accomplish its mission to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability. Contracts procure goods and services used directly by the agency, and grants assist other health-related and research organizations that contribute to CDC??™s mission through health information dissemination, preparedness, prevention, research, and surveillance. ? Each year, the CDC awards approximately $7 billion in over 14,000 separate grant and contract actions, including simplified acquisitions. ? The CDC does not provide financial assistance to individuals for their healthcare costs; however, the federal government provides this type of assistance through Medicare and Medicaid.
Health & Safety Topics that are of concern to the CDC are: Diseases & Conditions: ADHD, Birth Defects, Cancer, Diabetes, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Flu, Hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, STDs??¦ Healthy Living Bone Health, Physical Activity, Immunizations, Genetics, Sexual Health, Smoking Prevention??¦
Emergency Preparedness & Response Bioterrorism, Chemical & Radiation Emergencies, Outbreaks, Severe Weather??¦ Injury, Violence & Safety Brain Injury, Child Abuse, Falls, Fires, Food Safety, Poisoning, Suicide, Youth Violence??¦ Environmental Health Air Pollution, Carbon Monoxide, Lead, Mold, Water Quality, Climate Change??¦ Travelers Health Destinations, Outbreaks, Travel Vaccinations, Yellow Book??¦
Life Stages & Populations Infant & Child, Men, Minorities, Pregnancy, Seniors, Women??¦ Workplace Safety & Health Asbestos, Chemical Safety, Construction, Mining, Office Environments, Respirators
All people, and especially those at greater risk of health disparities, will achieve their optimal lifespan with the best possible quality of health in every stage of life. Start Strong: Increase the number of infants and toddlers that have a strong start for healthy and safe lives. (Infants and Toddlers, ages 0-3 years). Grow Safe and Strong: Increase the number of children who grow up healthy, safe, and ready to learn. (Children, ages 4-11 years). Achieve Healthy Independence: Increase the number of adolescents who are prepared to be healthy, safe, independent, and productive members of society. (Adolescents, ages 12-19 years). Live a Healthy, Productive, and Satisfying Life: Increase the number of adults who are healthy and able to participate fully in life activities and enter their later years with optimum health. (Adults, ages 20-49 years). Live Better, Longer: Increase the number of older adults who live longer, high-quality, productive, and independent lives. (Older Adults, ages 50 and over).
People in all communities will be protected from infectious, occupational, environmental, and terrorist threats. Preparedness goals will address scenarios that include natural and intentional threats. The first round of these scenarios will encompass influenza, anthrax, plague, emerging infections, toxic chemical exposure, and radiation exposure. Increase the use and development of interventions known to prevent human illness from chemical, biological, radiological agents, and naturally occurring health threats. Decrease the time needed to classify health events as terrorism or naturally occurring in partnership with other agencies. Decrease the time needed to detect and report chemical, biological, radiological agents in tissue, food or environmental samples that cause threats to the public??™s health.
They also want to improve the timeliness and accuracy of communications regarding threats to the public??™s health. Decrease the time to identify causes, risk factors, and appropriate interventions for those affected by threats to the public??™s health. Decrease the time needed to provide countermeasures and health guidance to those affected by threats to the public??™s health. Decrease the time needed to restore health services and environmental safety to pre-event levels. Improve the long-term follow-up provided to those affected by threats to the public??™s health.
The categories/types used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are as follows:
Biotoxins??”poisons that come from plants or animals
Blister agents/vesicants??”chemicals that severely blister the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin on contact
Blood agents??”poisons that affect the body by being absorbed into the blood
Caustics (acids)??”chemicals that burn or corrode people??™s skin, eyes, and mucus membranes (lining of the nose, mouth, throat, and lungs) on contact
Choking/lung/pulmonary agents??”chemicals that cause severe irritation or swelling of the respiratory tract (lining of the nose and throat, lungs)
Incapacitating agents??”drugs that make people unable to think clearly or that cause an altered state of consciousness (possibly unconsciousness)
Long-acting anticoagulants??”poisons that prevent blood from clotting properly, which can lead to uncontrolled bleeding
Metals??”agents that consist of metallic poisons
Nerve agents??”highly poisonous chemicals that work by preventing the nervous system from working properly
Organic solvents??”agents that damage the tissues of living things by dissolving fats and oils. Riot control agents/tear gas??”highly irritating agents normally used by law enforcement for crowd control or by individuals for protection (for example, mace) Toxic alcohols??”poisonous alcohols that can damage the heart, kidneys, and nervous system Vomiting agents??”chemicals that cause nausea and vomiting.
In conclusion, the CDC remains committed to its vision of healthy people in a healthy world. Part of the Department of Health and Human Services, CDC applies research and findings to improve people??™s daily lives and responds to health emergencies, and in 60 years, CDC has grown in size and stature, scope and science, and reputation and reach. Memories have been built and milestones achieved. World-class scientists work in world-class facilities. But while much has changed since 1946, the heart of CDC is still its people??”dedicated and diligent, persevering and professional, making a difference in lives around the world.