Analyze the CCOT of the middle ages in Western Europe during 600C.E.-1450C.E.
In 476, the Roman Empire fell which created no central military authority. Many German Barbarians invaded the area so they could rule. With all the corruption, Feudalism was created which was when someone wouldgive up their land for military protection. The fall of Rome brought many revisions to political structure because it went from a lack of central authority to a society where feudalism and manorialism were strongly used. The economic basis went from the Roman coin system to the barter system and back to the coin system. The social structure was revised because it went from no middle class to a society with a middle class who were the merchants. Due to many technological innovations, the knight became the most important symbol to society because he was the basis of warfare. However, some aspects of Western Europe remained constant such as the struggle between kings, nobles, and the church, and the church remained the center of education, medicine, and news during the time period of 600C.E.-1450C.E.
After the fall of Rome, politically, there was nothing but chaos. Since there was no central government, feudalism and manorialism developed, and there was no middle class. Then there were six Crusades which were military campaigns that tried to get all of Western Europe to convert to Christianity. As a result, kings became stronger because they made taxes and got land from lords who died in combat without heirs. Later, there was a need for a middle class which became merchants who helped with trading in Europe.
In the early stage of the middle ages, the coin system changed to the barter system because of all the chaos. Manorialism, which was when serfs and lords lived on a manor, developed. The serfs were farmers on the manor; they were basically servants to the lord. After the Crusades, a merchant class rose because many items needed to be made and traded. So many serfs became a merchant because it was easy for them to become since they already knew how to make a lot of the items needed. Since there was a lot of trade, it was much easier for the merchants to use the coin system so the barter system wasn??™t used anymore. Also, the king was tied to the merchants because he could use them to get taxes from other areas. The plague caused a huge population decrease so there was less trade and farming on land.
In the beginning of the middle ages, education disappeared and war became supreme. There were two classes: serfs and lords because the king was weak and manorialism. The Code of Chivalry, which is a moral code for taking care of people, became important. Knights followed it and it took a person about 21 years to become a knight. At age 7, he became a Paige then at age 14, he became a Squire then at age 21, he became a knight. After the Crusades, the middle class developed which were the merchants. The merchants also had stages: Apprentice, Journeymen, and then Master. To become a Master, one had to do a big project and the Craft Guilds, which was an assembly of craftsmen, had to accept him. In the later part of the middle ages, the merchants became wealthy, and the plague knocked out 1/3 of Europe.
In the early stage of the Middle Ages, many technological advances were developed. For agriculture, the mould board plow, horse collar and three-field crop rotation developed. The horse collar let the horse the plow with his shoulders, so the horse could carry heavier plows. The three-crop rotation was two fields would be used while the other gained nutrients, then the fields would be switched. For warfare, there was the use of the stirrup and mounted knights, and the development of plate armor. During the Crusades, many ideas in medicine, science and art were developed. In the later stage of the middle ages, the crossbow, longbow and firearms (muskets and crossbow) were developed. The king used bowmen instead of knights because the bowmen were cheaper and they were very loyal to the king. Also, hired soldiers replaced the feudal system of exchanges for military protection/service.
Although there were many changes during the middle ages, there were also certain parts that remained the same. There was always a struggle between the kings, nobles, and the church because each wanted a lot of power. The church remained the center of education, medicine, rest stop, food and clothing for the poor, agriculture research, news, and a moral code. The economy was still agriculture-based. The Code of Chivalry was used. Lastly, the castle was the primary defense and the keep was also very important for defensive purposes.
The fall of Rome brought many revisions to Western Europe even though some of Western Europe stayed the same. The fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 brought an end to the middle ages. The long bow and firearms brought the end of feudalism because soldiers were hired instead of forced to serve. When feudalism came to an end, there was a rebirth in Western Europe. This rebirth was called Renaissance and it brought many ideas to science, math, and art.